Roma Numismatics > “An exceptional military commander, Edward ‘the Black Prince’ was the eldest son of King Edward III, on whose behalf he campaigned in France from the age of 15. Scoring decisive military victories over the French at Crécy in 1346 and Poitiers in 1356, the Black Prince twice crippled the French army for a decade each time.
Anglo-Gallic. Edward the Black Prince, Lord of Aquitaine (1362-1372) AV Léopard d’or. Aquitaine, c.1362-1369. + ED : PmO : GnIS : AnGLIE : P’nCPS : AQVITNIE, crowned leopard passant left, raising right forepaw, within tressure of 10 arches, quatrefoils on points and within spandrels; double quatrefoil stops / + XPC : VInCIT : XPC REGnAT : XPC : IMPERAT, floriate cross within quatrefoil, leopards passant in angles. Withers-Ford 150.3c; Elias 140; Schneider III, 31; S 8121; Friedberg p. 220, 4 (Aquitaine). 3.47g, 28mm, 7h.
Extremely Fine. Rare.
Roma Numismatics XIII Auction
Lot 1064: Anglo-Gallic. Edward the Black Prince, Lord of Aquitaine, AV Léopard d’or.
Hammer Price: £5,500.00
Struck at the height of the Black Prince’s popularity, the leopard d’or is an example of his use of iconography to bolster the English position in Aquitaine, as it appears to deliberately supersede the French mouton d’or – the Paschal Lamb on the obverse and the fleur de lys on the reverse are all replaced by English leopards. This coin was one of the last issues of leopards struck in the period 1357-1361, and the entire series was probably recalled in 1361, when Edward III renounced his title of king of France in exchange for ratification of his possession of Aquitaine in the Treaty of Brétigny. The captured French king John II had to pay three million gold crowns for his ransom, and would be released after he paid one million; he was also required to provide numerous hostages, including two of his sons. While the hostages were held, John returned to France to try and raise funds to pay the ransom. In 1362 John’s son Louis of Anjou escaped captivity. John thus felt honour-bound to return to captivity in England, where he died in 1364.
In 1362, the Black Prince was invested as Prince of Aquitaine. He and his wife Joan of Kent moved to Bordeaux, the capital of the principality, where they spent the next nine years, and had two sons. The elder son, named Edward after his father and grandfather, died at the age of six. Around the time of the birth of their younger son, Richard (who would become King Richard II), the Black Prince was lured into a war on behalf of King Peter of Castile. The ensuing Battle of Nájera in 1367 was one of the Black Prince’s greatest victories. While the English longbow again demonstrated its devastating power, driving off the opposing cavalry, unlike in other battles of the Hundred Years’ War however, at Nájera it was the English who assaulted the French lines, with the English vanguard pinning the French formation while their mounted knights flanked and routed the enemy lines. Yet it was this campaign that shattered the Prince’s health, and he died some nine years later after a long-lasting illness contracted in Spain, becoming the first Prince of Wales not to become king, and thus robbing England of a capable and greatly respected heir.